Scale: The Hemingway Measure of Adolescent Connectedness — School Connectedness subscale.
What it measures:
- How engaged youth are at school, how much they enjoy school, how successful they feel at school, and how much they value this success.
Intended age range: 11- to 18-year-olds; versions for pre-adolescents (grades 3—6) and college students are also available. Brief description: This measure consists of 6 items. Sample items include: “I work hard at school,” “I enjoy being at school,” and “I do well in school.” Each item is rated on a 5-point scale: Not at all true, Not really true, Sort of true, True, or Very true.
Rationale: School connectedness measures vary widely in content. Many contain items that address feelings about safety while at school as well as rule fairness and teacher support. The Hemingway scale focuses more on aspects of school liking, engagement in school work, and feelings of success in the school context. These latter facets of school connectedness appear to be more amenable to change through mentoring because they focus more on youths’ perceptions and behaviors as opposed to more “objective” features of their school environment.
Special administration information: None.
How to score: Each item is scored from 1 (Not at all true) to 5 (Very true). The total score on the measure is computed by reverse coding one item (“I get bored in school al lot”) and averaging across all items.
How to interpret findings: A higher score indicates stronger connectedness to school.
Alternatives: Another frequently used measure is the School Connectedness Scale (SCS). The 6-item scale was originally developed for the Add Health Longitudinal study and has been used in several studies (in some cases omitting one of the original items). More information about this measure can be found here.
Citation: Karcher, M. J., & Sass, D. (2010). A multicultural assessment of adolescent connectedness: Testing measurement invariance across gender and ethnicity. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 57, 274–289. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0019357